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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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90                                                               TAI GBOUP.
The Interrogative Pronmms are $hraus who ?; and shdng, kd-shdngs re, what ?
Thus, WJfe-Wia j>#rflM, whose boy ?; W ^Araw, from whom ?; phrau-nai, what now, when ?;
M-sliang (sic) Khau-mun Mk khdm o, what merriments mean word, what do these merry-
makings mean ?; man chu kd-shdng u9 your name what is, what is your name ? Ee is
given on the authority of Hodgson, One of the foregoing sentences ends in o. This is
an interrogative particle which cannot be translated. It simply gives an interrogative
force to the sentence,
Phew appears in Khamti and Shan in the form of phau    Both have kcL-sMng
Pfirau appears also as an Indefinite Pronoun, as in phrau nd-kip, a certain field j.
phrait lau, anyone not, no one.
Ka-shang means(how many3 in; kd-shdng pi, how many years ? Similarly phrau
fam*pkring, what person-multitude, how many persons ?
Verts,—Subject to the remarks in the general introduction to this group, the-
relations of mood and tense can be indicated in the following way :—
The Simple Present takes no particle. It is always the word performing the func-
tion of the verb, standing alone. Thus, po kati.jti khan d-ndn run noi, my father lives
(/«) in that small house.
The tense is indicated in the same manner in all Tai Iau£ttages.
The Present Definite is formed by adding w, remain, after the word performing the-
function of a verb, as in, man nang-u no mq-timg, he is sitting (ndng, sit) on a horse,
In Khamti «is added.   In Shan yv, and in Siamese ay«
The Imperfect is formed by adding H-JOMS i.e., the past tense of w. Thus Jew jpo-w-
jm, I was striking.
The Past tense is formed by adding, after the word performing the function of a
verb, either yaw or Jed.
In Ahom both JOH audits are used indifferently for the Past tense. In Khamti and Shan, yau, like the
Siamese 2e«, indicates the perfect rather iihan past tenae generally. In Siamese leu is put at the end of the
sentence, "buij lot, which corresponds to it in Shan, unlike jau or yau, precedes the verb In Khamti feg also
givea the force of the past tense, as in Ahom, but not in Shan. I do not know the original meaning of TtSf
•when used aa a past sign Possibly, like # of the future, it means « place'. Ti indicates the place or scope to
which action proceeds, and fcs might mean the place from which it proceeds, Compare the use of M for bothi
the dative and the ablative in Shan, Jau means' completion'.
It is in the past tense that the tense particle is most often widely separated from the-
word performing the function of the verb.
The following examples occur of this tense in the specimens :—
W Applied direct to the word performing the function of the verb.
rai-dai-fau, lost, 1,7; was lost, I, 54
&k-jctMf arose, 1,10.
dtp-di-jw, was alive and well, 1,15.
hdn-jau, saw, I, 23; II, 11,18,
chum-kanyau, began to kiss, I, 24.
ld-jant said, I, 50.
tai-jatt, diedj I, 53